Reduces risk of cardiovascular complications
Those with type 2 diabetes have lower fitness levels than those without (Regensteiner et al, 1995). Observational studies have shown that regular exercise is associated with improved fitness and lower risk of all-cause and CV mortality (Boule et al., 2003; Chudyk et al., 2011; Gregg et al., 2003; Sluik et al., 2012).
Quality of evidence
Strength of recommendation
Although the supporting evidence base is of low quality, this is a strong recommendation for most people with type 2 diabetes.
Boulé NG, Kenny GP, Haddad E, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2003 Aug;46(8):1071-81.
Chudyk A, Petrella RJ. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1228-37.
Gregg EW, Gerzoff RB, Caspersen CJ, Williamson DF, Narayan KM. Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jun 23;163(12):1440-7.
Regensteiner JG, Sippel J, McFarling ET, Wolfel EE, Hiatt WR. Effects of non-insulin-dependent diabetes on oxygen consumption during treadmill exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995 Jun;27(6):875-81.
Sluik D, Buijsse B, Muckelbauer R, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Johnsen NF, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Ostergaard JN, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, Bendinelli B, Pala V, Tumino R, Ricceri F, Mattiello A, Spijkerman AM, Monninkhof EM, May AM, Franks PW, Nilsson PM, Wennberg P, Rolandsson O, Fagherazzi G, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Castaño JM, Gallo V, Boeing H, Nöthlings U. Physical Activity and Mortality in Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Sep 24;172(17):1285-95.